LoRaWAN is a telecommunications protocol that enables low-speed wireless communication of low-power objects communicating using LoRa technology and connected to the Internet through gateways, thus participating in the Internet of Things. This protocol is used in the context of smart cities, industrial surveillance and even agriculture. The modulation technology associated with LoRaWAN is LoRa, developed by Grenoble start-up Cycléo in 2009 and acquired by Semtech in 2012. Semtech promotes its LoRa platform through the LoRa Alliance of which it is a member. The LoRaWAN protocol on the LoRa physical layer enables the connection of sensors or objects that require a long battery life (counted in years), a volume (size of a matchbox or a cigarette pack) and reduced costs. LoRaWAN is the acronym for Long Range Wide Area Network, which can be translated as "Long Range Wide Area Network".
LoraWAN - cheap and energy-saving
The LoRaWAN protocol is a communications protocol for the Internet of Things that uses a proprietary chirp spread spectrum modulation technique called LoRa. This protocol aims to be simple, inexpensive to implement, and energy efficient, rather than allowing for high flow rates. The goal of LoRaWAN is clearly low-cost and low-power long-distance communication instead of high-speed communication that consumes more CPU and power. In fact, the challenges in networking objects lie in their costs, their autonomy and their number from a network perspective. This low cost is achieved by using a star architecture (simpler than a mesh architecture) and a modulation technique that is easier to implement than that of traditional cellular networks. In this way, the costs of the electronic components available there are reduced and new free frequency bands are used. The end devices used are usually inexpensive, so that they can be used in large numbers.
What is a LoRaWAN network?
A LoRaWAN network consists of low-power wireless devices that communicate with application servers through gateways. The modulation technique used between devices and gateways is LoRa. Communication between gateways and servers is via the IP protocol using an Ethernet or 3G backbone network. The LoRaWAN network topology is called Star-of-Stars because an application server is connected to a multitude of gateways, which in turn are connected to a multitude of end devices. In terms of network, the devices are not connected to the gateways, they only act as relays to reach the server managing the network, itself connected to one or more application servers. The packets sent by the devices are retransmitted by the gateways, after only adding information about the quality of the received signal. If wireless coverage permits, multiple gateways can retransmit the same message from one device. It is then then duplicated on the collection network - it is the server hosting the application that ensures the duplication of the packets. In particular, this peculiarity allows the localization of devices by comparing the different arrival times for the same duplicated packet. When the server needs to send a response, it uses the signal quality information added by the gateways to select the packet to send the response packet to. The Lorawan range does not allow direct dialogue between two connected objects. If such a dialogue needs to take place, this is done via the application server.
Helium mining: simple HNT user interface
Helium mining is a new type of cryptocurrency mining. Mining HNT by installing a simple device in the desktop window. The hotspot offers kilometers of network coverage for all Helium LongFi-equipped devices nearby. You will receive HNT rewards directly for this. And because of the Proof-of-Work model (we call it "Proof of Coverage"), your hotspot consumes only 5W of power. More than 20,000 helium hotspots have been sold in more than 2,000 cities. HNT's miner is the first to offer a beautiful, simple and intuitive user interface. Helium Hotspot was launched in 2019. It is the first device to mine HNT. The aim of the hotspot is to show that cryptocurrency mining can be simple and innovative. The Helium Hotspot offers a simple and effective user interface. Remote income and status monitoring is controlled with the help of the Helium app. The helium hotspot is now also available for all European customers.
How do you earn HNT?
Participants earn HNT by partnering with compatible hotspots. Millions of compatible devices can use People's Network and each device requires a data allowance (DC) to store and send data over the Internet. At Value, DC is created by "burning" HNT, reducing the total amount until an equilibrium is reached between the tokens burned and the DC created. The more devices use DC, the more HNT will be burned.
How to earn tokens?
Hotspots receive access points to set up and protect network infrastructure and transmit data from devices. The amount of HNT allocated to access points depends on the type of "work" they do relative to their value to the network. This verification of grid contributions is done by a new working algorithm called Proof of Coverage (PoC). In order to be able to participate in the PoC, several hotspots must be within a range of at least 300 meters, but always within range of each other (up to several kilometers depending on the environment). Unique hotspots have less revenue because they cannot participate in proof of coverage. After the first year, the distribution amount will be adjusted.
The tasks of the hotspot
The hotspot is chosen by the network to send a challenge (encrypted message) over the Internet to the hotspot audience. The coverage verification algorithm uses challenges to verify wireless coverage. Hotspots receive part of HNT by participating in coverage certification and verifying the wireless coverage of their counterparts. The amount earned by each hotspot depends on how often it participates directly in coverage certification activities. Hotspots that monitor and report cover-safe activity from other hotspots receive a portion of the HNT based on the amount of activity observed. HNT is distributed at hotspots and transmits data from devices on the network. The number of HNTs is distributed proportionally to the amount of data transferred from the hotspot. Network hotspots are automatically assigned at random and used to test coverage evidence.
Hotspots earn HNT by transmitting device data over the network. The more data the hotspot transmits from the device, the more revenue it generates. One of the characteristics of the LoRaWan network is that it can use TDOA (Time Difference of Arrival) or trilateration techniques to geolocate objects. The different gateways that receive the same message from the object mark the time of receipt of the message very precisely. Because the distance between the object and the antenna is proportional to the time it takes the antenna to receive the message, solving the equation with multiple unknowns can derive the position of the object, assuming the message from you belongs to at least three different antennas .